Quản Trị Theo Hướng Hiệu Quả

Trách nhiệm đầu tiên của giám đốc doanh nghiệp là: cố gắng đạt hiệu quả kinh tế tốt nhất từ các nguồn lực sẵn có hoặc khả dụng.
Đặt ra 3 câu hỏi để quản trị hiệu quả:
1. Công việc của nhà quản lý là gì?
Đó là hướng các nguồn lực và nỗ lực của doanh nghiệp vào các cơ hội tạo ra những thành quả có ý nghĩa về mặt kinh tế.

2. Vấn đề chính của công việc đó là gì?
Hiệu năng là làm việc một cách đúng đắn, hiệu quả là làm đúng việc.
Điều cần làm là (1) cách xác định phạm vi của hiệu quả (2) phương pháp tập trung các nguồn lực vào đó.

3. Đâu là nguyên tắc để xác định và phân tích vấn đề đó?
Doanh nghiệp là một hiện tượng xã hội và tuân thủ Pareto.
Trong khi 90% kết quả được tạo ra từ 10% các sự kiện đầu tiên, thì 90% chi phí phát sinh từ các sự kiện còn lại- các sự kiện không mang lại hiệu quả.

(Peter Drucker)

Quy Tắc Đổi Mới – Peter Drucker

innovation rules peter drucker

Đổi mới là chức năng đặc trưng của doanh nghiệp. Đó là phương tiện mà doanh nghiệp sử dụng để tạo ra tài nguyên mới đem lại của cải hay cải thiện nguồn lực sẵn có để tăng cường khả năng tạo ra của cải.
Nên có bảo cáo hàng ngày bao gồm 2 trang: một trang là những vấn đề chính cần giải quyết + một trang là chỉ ra những cơ hội.

Có 7 nguồn gốc đổi mới:
1. Những sự kiện bất ngờ: thành công bất ngờ hoặc thất bại bất ngờ
2. Những điều phi lý: những nghịch lý trong logic, sự bất hợp lý giữa các thực tiễn kinh tế. Bất cứ khi nào có một ngành có thị trường tăng trưởng ổn định nhưng lợi nhuận biên giảm thì trong ngành đó tồn tại một sự phi lý.
3. Những nhu cầu phát sinh
4. Những thay đổi trong ngành và thị trường
5. Những thay đổi về nhân khẩu học
6. Những thay đổi về nhận thức
7. Tri thức mới

Đổi mới có mục đích và có hệ thống bắt đầu bằng những phân tích các nguồn tạo cơ hội mới.
Cần bước ra để quan sát, tìm hiểu và lắng nghe thị trường, sau đó nghiên cứu các kỳ vọng, giá trị và nhu cầu của khách hàng.
Đổi mới hiệu quả khởi đầu từ việc nhỏ. Để hiệu quả cần phải đơn giản và có trọng tâm.
Đổi mới là công việc chứ ko phải là thiên tài. Nó đòi hỏi tri thức, sự khéo léo và tính tập trung.

Price Product Service – Product Manager’s Experience

Price Product Service Product Manager Experience

Here are some things I learned as a Product Manager:

1. No matter how good your product is, if you price it too low, people will think it is junk.
2. It’s alot easier to start with a high price and then lower it than it is to raise a low price to a higher one
3. Good service sells mediocre products
4. Subscription services bring in revenue for eternity but the product only sells once
5. Service reputation can make or break a product

6. You can often get away with making a mediocre product but you can almost never succeed providing a mediocre service
7. You can sell the product for a much lower price if you REQUIRE a service contract when the product is purchased.
8. You can advertise a much lower price for a product with required service and just add the service subscription as an “afterthought” to the sale and most people will pay attention only to the product price
9. If the product is too light people will think it’s not worth the price – IBM once added lead blocks to the product to make it heavier because customers associate weight with value
10. A good quality case can cover up for cheap components and everyone will be fooled.
11. The logo and reputation of the company command a far higher price than the product itself
12. Customers will almost always purchase a mediocre product with good service over a much better product with insufficient service
13. Never underestimate the value of a good salesman

14. Cheap products with lots of low cost accessories make for great profit margins
15. Never underestimate the vanity of the customer — the cache, appearance and presentation of the product will sell it if it makes the customer feel important
16. The price is never the price. Always build in room for discounts, including the “extra special” discount for that difficult customer
17. You can control only two of the three things needed to bring a product to market — cost, features or time to market. Choose wisely.
18. Never understimate the value of word-of-mouth advertising.
19. Short term solutions have long term impacts
20. Build a product with migration to the next version in mind. Migration services lock the customer into your product.
21. Don’t be fooled by volume — there’s an adage that says, “I lose a little on every unit I sell, but I make it up in volume.” Revenue is NOT profit.
22. The biggest cost of selling any product is the labor required to sell it.
23. Cut your losses on a losing product and move on – money in hand today is better than hoping for a big sale tomorrow. Products get old and todays cutting edge product is tomorrow’s blunt instrument.
24. “Just in time” manufacturing is only effective if you can deliver “just in time.”
25. The sale doesn’t end when you cash the check – you want the customer to come back tomorrow too.
26. The product is NEVER the product — the solution is the product. Customers want solutions, not products.
27. Don’t be lead around by the nose by what the competition is doing. You can’t ignore them but don’t follow them either
28. If the competition has a much better product, change the playing field, not the price

29. Gross margin is determined by the equation Actual Sales Price – Cost/Actual Sales Price. Determine your minimum margin required to cover all costs before determining price. This may require forecasting your sales volume and give you the target you need to be successful.
30. The price is always lower at the end of the month than at the beginning and always much lower at the end of the quarter than at the beginning. The best deals happen at the end of the fiscal year.

Business Purpose

the purpose of business

As other people have given some great answers already about specific industries that are ripe for disruption (and indeed, I have given similar answers elsewhere myself), I will instead give you a way to see how we determine what those industries are.

First, you have to decide what your business purpose is:

Are you trying to solve a problem (and if so, is it an immediate one or one that is less pressing or more esoteric)?

Have you identified a “need” that you feel that you can fill differently or betterthan current offerings?

Are you interested in fulfilling “wants” – things that are not necessary for “survival”, but rather fall squarely in “providing comfort”? (If so, do you want to build upon something that already exists, or create something entirely new?

Look at your daily life, and the objects, processes, and applications that you currently utilize. Identify any pain points.

Look at the world around you. Observe inefficiencies that could be removed with a better process.

Ask your friends, family, colleagues for their pain points.

Once you have narrowed down to a particular niche, create a survey and start calling (yes, on the phone – or better yet, in person) people who are representatives of that demographic and ask them the same things – what would they most like to change about “x”. Don’t stop until you have at least200 answers.

There is your business.


Management Mistakes


Management Mistakes

Below are some mistakes I made as a new manager or have seen other new managers make. Experienced managers still make some of these mistakes, though hopefully fewer:

Performance Management
Being slow to deal with performance issues – Smoke becomes fire. If you take note of performance issues early you can give gentle corrective feedback. If you’re too slow to notice you have to give stronger feedback, and the performance issues may be harder to reverse.Not documenting poor performance – Documenting poor performance via email helps employees understand the gravity of the situation (“This email summarizes the discussion we just had”) and it is also helpful to have on hand if it comes time to terminate the employee.Not documenting good performance – Documenting good performance via email, to the employee alone or to a wider audience, is a great way to recognize their contributions to the team and company. It’s also a good habit to regularly document good performance of team members for your own purposes, so you can remember what you want to praise them for at annual review time.

Career Development
Not getting to know your employees – It’s great to know the names of all your employees’ kids. It’s even better to know the type of work each employee most likes to do, their particular pain points within the team or company, what their career objectives are (depth, breadth, management), or why they might be thinking about taking a different job or moving to a different company. You need to develop a rapport and level of trust with each employee before they’ll start to share these things with you.Not paying attention to your high-performing employees – If you’re very satisfied with how an employee is performing you need to turn the tables and invest in making them more satisfied with their job. Find ways for them to do more of what makes them happy and less of what doesn’t.Not investing in developing your employees – Every employee needs to be developed, either to support the career development (and retention) of strong performers or to improve the performance of weaker employees. Every year you should be trying to raise the level of performance of every employee.
Thinking too small – A successful leader is going to create growth and opportunity for their team. A leader who thinks small is unlikely to do either. Instead of planning how to grow your business 100%, plan how to grow it 10x or 100x.Not explicitly allocating resources – Explicitly managing resources means prioritizing projects, specifying how many (or which) resources will work on each, and in what order. Highly effective teams may be able to self-organize extremely well. New managers give less effective teams too much freedom to self-organize, leading to sub-optimal resource allocation.Poor delivery of unpopular decisions – The difference in how employees receive unpopular decisions often depends on how those decisions are delivered. The more important, or more unpopular, the decision, the greater the need to manage its delivery. In my experience, the best way to deliver unpopular decisions is at a team meeting where you have ample time to give the reasoning behind the decision and take Q&A. Good managers explain why the decision is made. Bad managers say, “Because the boss said so.”Being slow to resolve team pain points – New managers don’t pay attention to or understand their team’s pain points. Good managers are always tracking their team’s pain points, devising strategies to reduce or resolve them, and then moving on to the next pain point.
Not investing in sourcing – Good managers source candidates themselves through their personal networks and take ownership over sourcing in other ways, treating any candidates that the recruiting department sends their way as gravy. Inexperienced managers are satisfied with whatever recruiting sends them.Lazy recruiting – Good managers act quickly on any recruiting activity. They review resumes as soon as they come in, make time in their schedules for phone screens, sell their positions to candidates, make quick hiring decisions, and are aggressive in getting from offer to acceptance. New managers act more slowly. They trust the recruiting department to brief candidates on the position and handle other candidate communications. Lazy recruiting loses candidates to other companies or internal teams.Reactive sourcing and recruiting – Bad managers wait until they have an approved position and a job description up on the company’s website. Good managers are always sourcing and recruiting, and may be chatting up a prospective candidate today about a position they may not have open for a year or more.

Not being clear on the requirements of the role – Inexperienced managers don’t spend time thinking about exactly what they need from a new hire. They hire generic candidates with generic skills. Good managers have a more narrow profile in mind, which helps them write stronger job descriptions and generate more qualified candidates.Lowering the bar – Inexperienced managers have low standards, or lower their standards, in an effort to make a hire. Good managers know that they’re much better off keeping a high bar and waiting for the right candidate.
Organizational Development
Letting dotted lines proliferate – It sucks to have two bosses. Good managers seek to have clear lines of authority and prevent their employees from getting caught in the middle between competing bosses. Inexperienced managers let other managers carve out chunks of their resources.Letting the team get swamped – Inexperienced managers keep piling more and more work on the team. Experienced managers either grow the team size to handle the increased load, or deflect the increased work. It takes an experienced manager who’s earned the trust of leadership to push back effectively, or to effectively justify why the team needs more headcount.Being reactive – Inexperienced managers need their bosses to tell them when their team is over or under-resourced or unbalanced. The team might have too few or too many resources, or it might be heavy or light on a certain role (e.g. QA:SDE ratio) given the other resources on the team. Experienced managers are anticipating how the needs of the team are going to change over time and then working proactively working to adapt their org’s size and structure.
Taking the credit – New managers let themselves take credit for their team’s work. Good managers attempt to redirect kudos and credit onto their team, or ideally, individual team members.Forwarding the blame – New managers pin the blame on team members. “Joe was out of the office and wasn’t able to finish this in time.” Good managers put the blame on themselves and understand that any failing within the team is a failing of the leader.

Value Proposition Canvas


Value Proposition Canvas


The rational needs of our customer (both conscious and latent). The Needs speak more to the pull of our heads.Wants. The emotional needs of our customer. The Wants speak more to the pull of our hearts.Benefits. What job does our product do for the customer? What problemof the customer does it solve? How does it decrease pain? How does itcreate gain?Experience. What will the customer feel when using our product? What will be the emotional drivers for buying our product?Costs. How much will the customer pay for our product? What other costswill the customer incur when switching to our product? How hard will it be for the customer to switch (time, labor costs)?Fears. What will the customer be afraid of? What other emotional reasons might prevent the customer from buying?

How is the canvas structured?

Customer. Everything that pertains to the customer – his needs, his problems, his emotions.Product. Everything about your solution – what it does for the customer, how it makes him feel.Switching. Everything that stops the customer from using your product – price, swithing costs, customer fears.
Rational. All that can be calculated, planned, predicted.Emotional. All that is impulsive and sometimes irrational.

How to work with the canvas?

You should fill one canvas for each combination of one customer segment, one value proposition and one substitute. You can try to combine them, but if you feel that it becomes messy, try to make a separate canvas for each combination to achieve more clarity.

Start with the Customer, his Needs and Wants.

Then go from left to right – to your Product, how it solves the problems of the customer and makes him feel. The Benefits should relate to the Needs, and the Experience to the Wants.

Finally – Switching. Is your solution so good that the customer will switch to it? Are the switching costs to high and the fears unaddressed?And then – back to the Product.

What will you change in your Product to better accomodate Customer Needs and Wants and to address his Switching Costs and Fears?